Obviative abbreviated OBV third person is a grammatical-person marking that distinguishes a non- salient obviative third-person referent from a more salient proximate third-person referent in a given discourse context.
- Clusivity: Typology and Case Studies of Inclusive-exclusive Distinction - Google Livres.
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- Clusivity: Typology and Case Studies of the Inclusive-Exclusive Distinction.
The obviative is sometimes referred to as the "fourth person". The inclusive—exclusive distinction occurs nearly universally among the Austronesian languages and the languages of northern Australia , but rarely in the nearby Papuan languages. Tok Pisin , an English-Melanesian pidgin , generally has the inclusive—exclusive distinction, but this varies with the speaker's language background. It is widespread in India, featuring in the Dravidian and Munda languages , as well as in several Indo-European languages of India such as Oriya , Marathi , Rajasthani , Punjabi , Sindhi , and Gujarati which either borrowed it from Dravidian or was retained as a substratum if Dravidian was displaced.
It can also be found in the languages of eastern Siberia , such as Tungusic , from which it was borrowed into northern Mandarin Chinese. In indigenous languages of the Americas it is found in about half the languages, with no clear geographic or genealogical pattern. It is, of course, possible in any language to express the idea of clusivity semantically, and many languages provide common forms that clarify the ambiguity of their first person pronoun English "the rest of us", Italian noialtri.
A language with a true clusivity distinction, however, does not provide a first person plural with indefinite clusivity: where the clusivity of the pronoun is ambiguous; rather, the speaker is forced to specify - by choice of pronoun or inflection - whether they are including the addressee or not. This rules out most European languages, for example.
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Clusivity is nonetheless a very common language feature overall. Some languages with more than one plural number make the clusivity distinction only in, for example, the dual, but not in the greater plural. Others make it in all numbers. In the table below, the plural forms are the ones preferentially listed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Grammatical distinction in pronouns and agreement. John Benjamins Publishing — via Google Books.
Philological investigations into the alleged inclusive-exclusive distinction in the second person plural". In Filimonova, Elena ed. Clusivity: Typology and case studies of the inclusive-exclusive distinction PDF. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved International Journal of American Linguistics Lionel Bender ed. Routledge — via Google Books. Language p, as quoted in Simon Quote: One pair of combinations not discussed is the opposition between 2nd person non-singular inclusive i. A study of personal pronoun systems".
Linguistische Berichte p, as quoted in Simon Quote: My contention is that any language which provided more than one 2nd person plural pronoun, and required the speaker to make substantial enquiries about the whereabouts and number of those referred to in addition to the one person he was actually addressing, would be quite literally unspeakable. In Hickey, ed. Lexical categories and their features.
Reading | Clusivity
Collateral Demonstrative Nominalized Possessive Postpositive. Inflected Casally modulated Stranded. Article Demonstrative Interrogative Possessive Quantifier. Measure word. Discourse Interrogative Modal Noun Possessive. Categories : Personal pronouns Grammatical conjugation Grammatical categories.
- Excluding exclusively the exclusive: Suppletion patterns in clusivity.
- The expression of person and number: a typologist’s perspective.
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Look up we in Wiktionary , the free dictionary. An alternative set of three emphatic pronouns are used only in combination with the basic pronouns. Asymmetry in the paradigm of basic and emphatic free pronouns provides a clue for understanding diachronic developments of the Onnele pronoun system. These include the emergence of the clusivity distinction and disyllabic forms among the basic free pronouns as well as neutralization among the emphatic forms.
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- The expression of person and number: a typologist’s perspective | SpringerLink.
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Ordering appears somewhat significant. Thus, the complex system of free pronouns in Romei Onnele is quite productive, including over forms. Perhaps the compound forms are better understood as verb serialization for which some of the more common forms are in the process of becoming grammaticized. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. On Defining Clusivity. Michael Daniel argues that the traditional definition of clusivity is incorrect.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 6. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines 3. Turkish similative.
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This work presents a survey of a specific pattern of syncretism which is found in the pronominal paradigms in Northern Australian languages both Pama Nyungan and non-Pama Nyungan. The peculiarity of this pattern is a flip between the The peculiarity of this pattern is a flip between the inclusive and exclusive category across different number values.
In non-Pama Nyungan languages it is often possible to segment the pronoun according to person and number. For example in Manggarayi, the element that signals the exclusive in the minimal number category "flips" to the inclusive in the unit-augmented and augmented number category and vice versa. The study surveys the phenomenon and tries to establish a typology of different manifestations of the pattern.
A number of explanations are tested; amongst them genetic inheritance, diffusion of the pattern or the forms and parallel development. Related Topics. Follow Following. Languages and Linguistics.
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